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The DNA of the

The DNA of the Industrial Internet of Things Single Pair Ethernet - or SPE for short - is currently one of the mega-trends in industrial data transmission. If you want to understand the applications and advantages of reducing data cabling to a single wire pair, you must learn about the history of Ethernet and industrial automation. AUTOMATION As a non-standardized software protocol, Ethernet was developed in the 1970s for the internal and locally limited transmission of data packets in wired computer networks (LAN - Local Area Network). The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defined the software protocol and the physical layer - including physical interfaces such as connectors and cables - in the following two decades and laid the foundation for the modern Internet with the introduction of various protocols such as 802.4 (Token Bus), 802.5 (Token Ring) and finally 802.11 (WLAN). Common language Parallel to this, fieldbus technology developed in the 1980s, driven by the increased use of electrical automation technology. The basic idea was the same: Different communication participants should communicate with each other in an orderly manner and in a common system. However, the various fieldbus protocols, such as Interbus, DeviceNet and Profibus, were not used for networking computers at company level, but for serial or parallel connection of sensors and actuators to the control and management level. Ultimately, the parallel development of the two transmission protocols established the form of the automation pyramid that is still valid today. The highest levels represent locally limited computer networks which are used for rough and detailed production planning. The lower levels comprise the signal, data and power transmission for recording, controlling and regulating the physical production process (Fig. 1). The shape of the pyramid resulted primarily from the hierarchical-logical arrangement of the different levels. However, it also rep- Author: Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing. Verena Neuhaus, Manager Product Marketing Data Connectors, Phoenix Contact GmbH & Co. KG, Blomberg, Germany resents the previously valid framework conditions for industrial data transmission: High transmission rates and short distances via Ethernet, low transmission rates and long distances via fieldbus. Turned upside down So why this digression? Industrial Ethernet and especially Single Pair Ethernet are turning this automation pyramid upside down. With the development of Ethernet-based protocols such as Ether- Net/IP, Profinet or EtherCAT, real-time data transmission from the company level to the field level was introduced. The physical interfaces became more powerful, but also more complex in electrical terms, since data transmission had to be protected from interference such as dirt, vibrations and electromagnetic radiation. Manufacturers of connection technology therefore developed special, IP6x-protected Ethernet interfaces to meet these increased requirements at the field level. For the top of the automation pyramid - the enterprise and operational level - IP20 solutions were still sufficient. Data transmission to the second power So far, standardization efforts have been limited to ever higher data rates and higher demands on cabling technology. These requirements were defined by ever higher performance classes in copperbased cabling - the Categories. The Single Pair Ethernet does not again define higher bandwidths or transmission distances, but forms the normative framework for reduced cabling to suit the application. The IEC 63171-2 (IP20) and IEC 63171-5 (IP67) standards focus on lower transmission rates of 10 to 100 Mbps. The data cabling with only one pair of wires nevertheless enables transmission distances of up to 1000 meters. Thus, for the first time, SPE allows areas of application and applications that conventional Ethernet has not allowed to date, for example in 28 WORLD OF INDUSTRIES 4/2019

02 Efficiently wired: Single-pair and four-pair MICE interfaces are used for cabling IP20 and IP6x applications 01 Paradigm shift: SPE turns the conventional automation pyramid upside down From the sensor up to the cloud Single Pair Ethernet (SPE) connects the IP20 world of the enterprise and operating level with the IP6x world of the control and field level – and thus opens up new areas of application. The goal is the seamless connection of all communication participants on the basis of the same protocol language and uniform interfaces. Thanks to the reduced cabling with only one or four individual wire pairs, users can build efficient network and cabling structures from the sensor to the control and company level right up to the cloud. And in addition to data rates of up to 1000 Mbps, the SPE cabling also allows the end devices to be supplied with power of up to 60 watts. process technology. The advantage for plant operators: data cabling can be carried out continuously on the basis of the Ethernet protocol, i.e. identical interfaces and pin connector patterns can be used in different environments. Another advantage is that single-pair interfaces are considerably more compact than two- or four-pair device and cable connectors. SPE thus supports the continuing trend towards compact, decentralized devices in industrial automation, process technology, building automation and in telecommunications and infrastructure applications. SPE can thus turn application-neutral into the DNA of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). New pin connector pattern, well-known reliability In order to ensure the consistent compatibility of all interfaces, the IEEE has formed working groups for the normative description of different applications with transmission rates of 10, 100 and 1000 Mbps. Standards for 100-Base-T1 and 1000-Base-T1 have already been adopted, with 10-Base-T1 standards expected to follow by the third quarter of 2019. Phoenix Contact is a major driving force behind the standardization of the corresponding interfaces. Together with market partners Reichle & De-Massari, Weidmüller, Fluke Networks and Belden, the connection technology specialist develops protected and unprotected pin connector patterns for single-pair and four-pair cables. The MICE model describes their mechanical robustness (M1 or M2/3), IP protection (I1 or I2/3), chemical and climatic resistance (C1 or C2/3), and electromagnetic safety (E1 or E2/3) (Fig. 2). The compact pin connector patterns are ideally suited for efficient cabling of numerous communication participants - either via a single wire pair or via four wire pairs for four participants sharing a common line and interface. Thanks to the common interface, single- and four-pair cabling concepts can be mixed as well as IP20 and IP6x solutions. Possible applications are the splitting of eightwire cabling concepts into four individual SPE strings for four different communication participants, or the dimensioning of individual pairs within the eight-wire device interfaces. The two-wire technology also permits the application-specific supply of terminal devices with outputs of up to 60 watts via the same pair of wires (Power over Data Line - PoDL). The future of communication technology SPE cannot be seen as a mega-trend in industrial data transmission independent of other standardization efforts. The basic framework for the future of industrial communication technology is being created in parallel in various committees and projects. New communication standards such as the Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture (OPC UA), Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) and 5G form the basis for continuous networking from the sensor via the machine and higher-level systems into the cloud. The new standards will outperform existing protocols and interfaces in terms of cost, data throughput, latency and deterministics. As a technology leader with more than 30 years of experience in industrial communication, Phoenix Contact is thus active in all the relevant standardization committees. The goal: nothing less than a new, manufacturer-independent communication standard for automation. Today, OPC UA already serves as a superimposed communication standard in plants. OPC UA is now being expanded by standardized application profiles in the field - for I/O, safety or drive applications, for example. In addition, standardized device models are defined for uniform configuration and diagnostics of the devices in the network. Photographs: Phoenix Contact WORLD OF OF INDUSTRIES 4/2019 29


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