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Automation Technologies 4/2016

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Automation Technologies 4/2016

02 The viewpoints of the

02 The viewpoints of the IIRA can be represented in the corresponding layers in the RAMI 4.0 model INDUSTRIAL COMMUNICATION that may exist between the languages – as in human language – and hence restore communication. Perspectives of different stakeholder groups The U.S.-based Industrial Internet Consortium developed the Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA) model based on the ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011 standard. This international standard outlines the requirements regarding a system, software, and enterprise level architecture. Where practical and feasible, the ISO/IEC/ IEEE 42010 standard recommends identifying the perspectives of the various different stakeholders. Stakeholders in this context include system users, operators, owners, vendors, developers, and the technicians who maintain and service the systems. The aim is to describe system properties as seen from their viewpoint. Such properties include the intended use and suitability of the concept in terms of its implementation, the implementation process itself, potential risks, and the maintainability of the system over the entire lifecycle. IIRA is a layer model that takes into consideration four different viewpoints (business, usage, functional, and implementation). It focuses on the capabilities from the perspective of the software and their business processes. Each of the four viewpoints outlined in IIRA can be compared with the respective layers on the vertical axis of RAMI 4.0; RAMI 4.0 supplements the model with the axes ‘Lifecycle’ (with types and instances) and ‘Hierarchical Levels.’ Furthermore, the relationship to the world of things is elementary. This is specified as an Industrie 4.0 component in the reference architecture model and includes, as indicated above, a description of communication in syntax and semantics in an administration shell (Figure 2). Data model and engineering language as a digital “link” With RAMI 4.0 and the Industrie 4.0 component, Plattform Industrie 4.0 has defined an architecture that makes production, products and services, and their usage and complexity manageable from an industrial perspective. The architecture also aims to reduce the variety of interfaces in practice in the Internet of Things, Services, People, and Machines as well as to standardize the engineering language. The administration shell of the Industrie 4.0 component thus forms the link between the shop and office floor and to other models and viewpoints. The stakeholders from the different consortiums now have to work together to identify the models (IIRA, RAMI 4.0) and promote the implementation in products, systems, data, and services. The aim is to generate one or more harmonized reference models that create the investment security for implementation of properties (with harmonized meaning key aspects are identical). This is driven by the fact that interoperability is necessary to deliver Industrie 4.0 solutions that offer identifiable benefits to users. Photographs: Teaser Fotolia, Phoenix Contact [1] Plattform Industrie 4.0 (pub.): Industrie 4.0 Implementation Strategy; V1.0; last updated: April 2015 [2] VDI – Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V., VDI/VDE Society Measurement and Automatic Control (GMA, ZVEI – German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers’ Association Automation Division (pub.): Reference Architecture Model Industrie 4.0 RAMI 4.0; last updated: July 2015 [3] Industrial Internet Consortium (pub.): Industrial Internet Reference Architecture V1.7 [4] MIT Technology Review: Business Report – The Internet of Things; July-August 2014; [5] ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 Systems and software engineering - Architecture description; Retrieved: 2013-08-0; Applications on the online roadmap Many Industrie 4.0 concepts have already been deployed in the first applications. For instance, a production control system designed by Phoenix Contact enables the parallel production of different versions of a product, simple configuration of version-specific process flows, and the support of manual steps by means of easy-to-use wizard functions. End-to-end recording of the manufacturing history ensures long-term quality documentation. In toolmaking, mixedmethod, automated process sequences help reduce idle time because tools can be uniquely identified and localized at any time anywhere in the world. Digitization of all relevant data therefore taps the potential for improving efficiency, making it possible to manufacture batches of one at the same cost it would take to mass-produce the product. AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES 4/2016

Overcoming IoT complexity Ray Almgren As the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) continues to impact the way the world connects, embedded engineers face growing demands. To meet the evolving requirements of the IIoT, NI’s platform-based architecture brings together intelligent systems, connectivity and system-to-system communications. The consumer internet of things (CIoT) includes everything from smart homes, mobile fitness devices and connected toys whereas the industrial internet of things (IIoT) includes smart agriculture, smart cities, smart factories and the smart grid. This connectedness, particularly in the industrial and consumer spaces, increases the demands on traditional design and manufacturing test systems. Once popular options like fixed-function, black-box instrumentation and turn-key data-logging software can’t keep up with the number of standards, protocols and functionalities that modern business demands. These systems of systems require software that meets key requirements like prototype to deploy, flexibility and decision making at the node. If you are building a system today, you need a foundation to stand on that adapts to and even anticipates changing system requirements. That foundation is a platformbased approach. Connected IIoT systems need the flexibility to evolve There are a few key things to know about a platform-based approach and how it will enable companies to accelerate productivity, innovation and discovery in the IoT era. Developing and deploying the systems that will make up the industrial internet of things represent a massive investment for decades to come. The only way to meet the needs of today and tomorrow is not by predicting the future but by deploying a network of systems flexible enough to evolve and adapt. This requires a platform-based approach; a single flexible hardware architecture deployed across many applications removes a substantial amount of the hardware complexity and makes each new Author: Ray Almgren is Vice President of Marketing, National Instruments, Austin, Texas problem primarily a software challenge. The platforms that system designers choose need to be based on an IT-friendly OS so they can be securely provisioned and configured to properly authenticate and authorize users to maintain system integrity and maximize system availability. Save time and reduce cost to market Cost and time to market are the driving factors when choosing test equipment in the consumer internet of things. Certain companies, such as those that test memory and microcontrollers, are satisfied with fixed-functionality “big iron” testers. But as companies innovate and rapidly evolve the functionality of their devices, they need a smarter automated test equipment (ATE) platform that can productively scale with that innovation. With a platform-based approach, engineers can scale up the capability of a tester by adding modules when necessary, which eliminates the high cost of retooling the hardware or rewriting the lowest levels of software. Internet for everyone requires a platform-based approach The mobile Internet has painted a picture of continued innovation and inspired researchers all over the world to think beyond faster data and greater capacity. These new networks, referred to as fifth generation or 5G, may transform our lives and unleash enormous economic potential. However, 5G also presents researchers with a challenge to improve more known, but no less important, issues such as the coverage uniformity across a served region and more energy-efficient networks. 5G will happen and its impact will be transformational, but researchers need to take a platform-based approach to design and rapidly prototype their concepts faster in order to expedite the time to market and deployment. Ultimately, this will help unlock the full potential of the IoT. More and more companies are adopting a smarter, platformbased approach to address the complexity challenges the IoT brings. Ultimately, this will enable IoT systems that are adaptive, scalable, secure and continually modified and maintained. Photographs: National Instruments National Instruments NI, headquartered in Austin, Texas USA is a producer of automated test equipment and virtual instrumentation software (e.g. LabView). Applications include data acquisition, instrument control and machine vision. In 2015, the company sold products to more than 35,000 companies with revenues of $ 1.23 billion USD. They employ app. 7,400 people. NI Trend Watch 2016 explores the IoT and the explosion of Data The third annual report of National Instruments examines a range of topics focused on the Internet of Things and its impact on how we manage data – from the consumerization of software to prototyping 5G to make it a reality. AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES 4/2016


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